Guidance Engineering is at the forefront of snow sport research and our consultants have published numerous peer-reviewed studies on skiing and snowboarding injuries, equipment, speeds, reaction times, and kinematics on terrain park jumps. We continue to actively investigate skiing and snowboarding injuries, new equipment, terrain park jump design, and human interactions with ski lifts to further the understanding of snow sport safety.

 
 

 
 

Publications, Abstracts and Presentations

 
 

Campbell J, Scher I, Carpenter D, Jahnke B, Ching R. Performance of alpine touring boots when used in alpine ski bindings. Journal of Applied Biomechanics (in press).

Campbell J, Scher I, Carpenter D, Jahnke B, Ching R. Interactions of tech bindings with AT boot toe inserts: Part I, Binding toe piece mechanics. Snow Sports Trauma and Safety, Conference Proceedings of the International Society for Skiing Safety: 21st Volume, Springer International, 2017 (doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-52755-0_6)

Campbell J, Scher I, Carpenter D, Jahnke B, Ching R. Interactions of tech bindings with AT boot toe inserts: Part II, Binding in ski mode. Snow Sports Trauma and Safety, Conference Proceedings of the International Society for Skiing Safety: 21st Volume, Springer International, 2017 (doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-52755-0_7)

Scher I, Stepan L, Campbell J, Gunnarson C, Bower G, Wilkens K, Hackett T. Snow park jump landings: A pilot study of impact loads. Abstract presented at the biennial meeting of the International Society for Skiing Safety, Innsbruck, Austria, April 2017.

Stepan L, Scher I. Effectiveness of ski area padding: potential for head and neck injury mitigation. Abstract presented at the biennial meeting of the International Society for Skiing Safety, Innsbruck, Austria, April 2017.

Campbell J, Stepan L, Scher I. Release of alpine touring bindings in tour mode. Abstract presented at the biennial meeting of the International Society for Skiing Safety, Innsbruck, Austria, April 2017.

Shealy J, Scher I, Johnson R, Stepan L, Campbell K. Can helmets prevent death to skiers and snowboarders? Abstract presented at the biennial meeting of the International Society for Skiing Safety, Innsbruck, Austria, April 2017.

Campbell J, Scher I, Stepan L, Ching R. Retention and release loads measured on alpine and alpine touring bindings. Abstract presented at the biennial meeting of the International Society for Skiing Safety, Innsbruck, Austria, April 2017.

Stepan L, Suderman B, Scher I, Shealy J. Skiing and snowboarding fatalities: Are head injuries overrepresented as a cause of death? Abstract presented at the biennial meeting of the International Society for Skiing Safety, Innsbruck, Austria, April 2017.

Campbell J, Stepan L, Scher I, Ching R. Knee joint loads in male and female skiers. Abstract presented at the biennial meeting of the International Society for Skiing Safety, Innsbruck, Austria, April 2017.

Scher I, Stepan L, Campbell J, Gunnarson C, Bower G, Wilkens K, Hackett T. Snow Park Jump Landings: A Pilot Study Examining Impact Loads. International Olympic Committee World Conference on Prevention of Injury & Illness in Sport, Monte-Carlo, Monaco, March 2017.

Scher I, Stepan L, Campbell J, Gunnarson C, Bower G, Hackett T. Dynamics of snow park jump landings: a pilot study examining impact loads. Abstract presented at the 7th International Congress on Science and Skiing, St Anton am Arlberg, Austria, December 2016.

Campbell J, Scher I, Stepan L, Campbell K, Nichol J, Ching R. Ski binding loads generated during alpine skiing and alpine touring skiing: a comparison of the retention requirements. Abstract presented at the 7th International Congress on Science and Skiing, St Anton am Arlberg, Austria, December 2016.

Scher I, Stepan L, Yang N, Shealy J. Head injuries from snow park jumps. Presented at the biennial meeting of the International Extreme Sports Medicine Congress, Boulder, Colorado, June 2016.

Scher I, Campbell J. Backcountry ski binding release mechanism and lower extremity injury. Presented at the biennial meeting of the International Extreme Sports Medicine Congress, Boulder, Colorado, June 2016.

Scher I, Stepan L, Yang N, Shealy J.  Rotational Head Kinematics During a Back Edge Catch Event. Abstract presented at the Biennial Meeting of the International Society for Skiing Safety, San Vito di Cadore, Italy, March 2015.

Scher I, Suderman B, Stepan L, Shealy J. Helmet Effectiveness: Do Helmets Reduce the Likelihood of Severe Head Injury? Abstract presented at the Biennial Meeting of the International Society for Skiing Safety, San Vito di Cadore, Italy, March 2015.

Stepan L, Scher I, Shealy J. Typical Skiing and Snowboarding Speeds at US Ski Resorts. Abstract presented at the Biennial Meeting of the International Society for Skiing Safety, San Vito di Cadore, Italy, March 2015.

Stepan L, Scher I, Harley E, Shealy J. Chairlift Restraining Bar Usage: A Pilot Study at a US Western Ski Resort. Abstract presented at the Biennial Meeting of the International Society for Skiing Safety, San Vito di Cadore, Italy, March 2015.

Campbell J, Scher I, Jahnke B, Carpenter D. Retention Release Characteristics of AT Boots in Alpine Bindings. Abstract presented at the Biennial Meeting of the International Society for Skiing Safety, San Vito di Cadore, Italy, March 2015.

Campbell J, Scher I, Jahnke B, Carpenter D. Interactions of Tech Bindings With AT Boot Toe Inserts. Abstract presented at the Biennial Meeting of the International Society for Skiing Safety, San Vito di Cadore, Italy, March 2015.

Shealy J, Scher I, Stepan L, Shealy K. Update: Fatalities in Skiing and Snowboarding in the United States. Abstract presented at the Biennial Meeting of the International Society for Skiing Safety, San Vito di Cadore, Italy, March 2015.

Scher I, Shealy J, Stepan L, Thomas R, Hoover R. Terrain Park Jump Design: Would Limiting Equivalent Fall Height Reduce Spine Injuries? Skiing Trauma and Safety, 20th Volume, ASTM STP 1582, 2015. 

Shealy J, Johnson R, Ettlinger C, Scher I. Role of Helmets in Mitigation of Head Injuries. Skiing Trauma and Safety, 20th Volume, ASTM STP 1582, 2015.

Shealy J, Ettlinger C, Scher I. 2010/2011 NSAA 10-Year Interval Injury study. Skiing Trauma and Safety, 20th Volume, ASTM STP 1582, 2015.

Stepan L, Scher I, Shealy J, Hoover R, Yang S. Factors contributing to severe injury in unsuccessful jumps: Modeling initial ground contact. Abstract presented at the Biennial Meeting of the International Society for Skiing Safety, San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina, August 2013.

Suderman B, Harley E, Stepan L, Shealy J, Scher I. Chairlift unloading success: Effects of age and equipment type on likelihood of falling. Abstract presented at the Biennial Meeting of the International Society for Skiing Safety, San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina, August 2013.

Shealy J, Scher I, Johnson R, Ettlinger C, Stepan L, Shealy K. Ski and snowboarding deaths in the United StatesAbstract presented at the Biennial Meeting of the International Society for Skiing Safety, San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina, August 2013.

Scher I, Stepan L, Shealy J, Thomas R. Rental and Fleet Helmets: Examining Multiple Impacts. Abstract presented at the Biennial Meeting of the International Society for Skiing Safety, Keystone, CO, May 2011.

Shealy J, Scher I, Johnson R. Jumping Features at Ski Resorts: Good Risk Management or Not? Abstract presented at the Biennial Meeting of the International Society for Skiing Safety, Keystone, CO, May 2011. 

Shealy J, Scher I, Stepan L, Harley E. Jumper kinematics on terrain park jumps: Relationship between takeoff speed and distance traveled. Journal of ASTM International 2010; 7(10) (Paper ID JAI102885). 

Harley E, Scher I, Stepan L, Young D, Shealy J. Reaction times of skiers and snowboarders. Journal of ASTM International 2010; 7(9) (Paper ID JAI102829). 

Heckman G, Harley E, Scher I, Young D. Personal protective equipment use in snow sledding: Do users comply with manufacturer’s warnings?  Proceedings, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 54th Annual Meeting 2010.

Stepan L, Scher I, Shealy J. Unconstrained speeds of skiers and snowboarders: Factors influencing the in-run of a table-top jump. Abstract presented at the International Congress on Skiing Trauma and Safety, Garmisch, Germany, April 2009.

Richards D, Scher I, Carhart M. Kinematics of a snowboard fall: Implications for snowboard helmet testing. Journal of ASTM International 2008; 5(6) (Paper ID JAI101406). Also in: Skiing Trauma and Safety, 17th Volume, ASTM STP 1510, 2009.

Scher I, Richards D, Carhart M, Thomas R, Hurlen N, Lam T. Pediatric head and neck injuries in snow sports: Evaluating the influence of helmets. Journal of ASTM International 2008; 5(4) (Paper ID JAI101400). Also in: Skiing Trauma and Safety, 17th Volume, ASTM STP 1510, 2009.

Harley E, Scher I, Krauss D. The effect of visibility on chosen speed of skiers and snowboarders. Abstract presented at the Biennial Meeting of the International Society for Skiing Safety, Aviemore, Scotland, May 2007.

Krauss D, Lieberman D, Grossman H, Ray R, Scher I. An evaluation of perceptual experience of skiers using quantitative image processing. Journal of ASTM International 2008; 5(4) (Paper ID JAI101405). Also in: Skiing Trauma and Safety, 17th Volume, ASTM STP 1510, 2009.

Shealy J, Stone, F. Tabletop jumping: Engineering analysis of trajectory and landing impact. Journal of ASTM International. 2008. 5(6). Abstract presented at the International Congress on Skiing Trauma and Safety, Aviemore, Scotland, May 2007.

Scher I, Richards D, Carhart M. Head injury in snowboarding: Evaluating the protective role of helmets. Journal of ASTM International 2006; 3(4) (Paper ID JAI14203). Also in: Skiing Trauma and Safety, 16th Volume, ASTM STP 9034, 2006.

Shealy J, Ettlinger C, Johnson R. How fast do winter sports participants travel on alpine slopes? Journal of Skiing Trauma and Safety, 15th Volume, ASTM STP 1464, 2005.

Scher I, Mote CD Jr. Minimum retention settings: Examining prediction methods. In: Skiing Trauma and Safety, 13th Volume, ASTM STP 1397, 2000, pp. 11–29.

Scher I, Mote CD Jr. Comparison of needed and recommended retention settings for snow skiing. In: Skiing Trauma and Safety, 12th Volume, ASTM STP 1345, 1999, pp. 107–119.

Scher I, Mote CD Jr. Obstacle based minimum retention settings. Abstract presented at the Biennial Meeting of the International Society for Skiing Safety, Breuil‑Cervinia, Italy, 1999.

Scher I, Grewal D, Gulick D. How binding is simple retention: Setting standards and smart bindings. Abstract presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Sacramento, CA, September 1997.